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United Nations Editorial Manual Online


Footnotes and other references


   I.   Introduction

  II.   General instructions on footnotes and text notes
        A.   When to use footnotes and text notes
        B.   Placement of footnotes
        C.   Excessive referencing
        D.   Electronic sources
        E.   Points of style

 III.   United Nations sources
        A.   Masthead documents
        B.   Reports issued as supplements to the Official Records
        C.   Sales publications
        D.   Reports of conferences
        E.   Resolutions and decisions
        F.   Statements and oral reports made before a United Nations body
        G.   Instruments in the Treaty Series
        H.   Advisory opinions, judgments and orders of the International Court of Justice
        I.    Conference room papers
        J.   Restricted documents
        K.   Material on the website of an office or department    

 IV.   Outside sources
        A.   Documents of other organizations
        B.   Books and publications
        C.   Publishing data: special issues
        D.   Government publications
        E.   Legal references
        F.   Working papers and research reports in a published series
        G.   Articles and chapters in a book or publication
        H.   Articles in a periodical
        I.     Articles in a newspaper
        J.    Articles on a website
        K.   Unpublished papers and dissertations
        L.   Databases
        M.  Public statements
        N.   Interviews
        O.   Personal communications
        P.   Multimedia sources

   V.   Repeated references
         A.   Repeated footnote indicators
         B.   Use of ibid.
         C.   Shortened references
         D.   Repeated footnotes in tables and figures

  VI.   Permission footnotes

 VII.   Explanatory footnotes      
         A.   Content
         B.   Notes to explanatory footnotes
         C.   Supplementary sources of information

VIII.   Cross references

  IX.   Footnote indicators
         A.   Types of indicators
         B.   Placement of indicators in the text
         C.   Numbered footnotes
         D.   Footnotes indicated by lower-case letters
         E.   Footnotes indicated by asterisks and other symbols

   X.   Reference lists and bibliographies      
         A.   Author-date system
         B.   Keyed references
         C.   General bibliographies and lists of sources



United Nations Editorial Manual Online
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